In 2004-2005, two important reports were published: Mayhem in the Middle (Fordham Institute), and Focus on the Wonder Years (Rand Education). Both of these reports noted a drop in achievement between 4th and 8th grade on a national scale. Both reports referred to research concluding that “students in K-8 schools scored significantly higher than their MS counterparts on standardized achievement measures in reading, language arts, and math. Moreover, the Fordham report concluded that “there is clear evidence that the K-8 model has a significant positive effect on academic achievement, openness to learning, and student behavior.”